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Subscription offers. Subscription sign in. Read latest edition. UK Edition. US Edition. Log in using your social network account. Please enter a valid password. Keep me logged in. Try Independent Minds free for 1 month See the options. Physicist who claimed 'physics was invented by men' suspended by Cern with immediate effect. In , she earned a second PhD in Philosophy.
This criticism brought her recognition. But she was removed from her position as an instructor at the University of Vincennes as well as ostracized from the Lacanian community. She held a research post at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique since , where she is now a Director of Research in Philosophy.
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Her initial research focused on dementia patients, about whom she produced a study of the differences between the language of male and female patients. Noted also is that in her writings, Irigaray has stated a concern that an interest in her biography would affect the interpretation of her ideas as the entrance of women into intellectual discussions has often also included the challenging of women's point of view based on biographical material.
Her most extensive autobiographical statements thus far are gathered in Through Vegetal Being co-authored with Michael Marder. Overall, she maintains the belief that biographical details pertaining to her personal life hold the possibility to be used against her within the male dominated educational establishment as a tool to discredit her work. Her first major book Speculum of the Other Woman, based on her second dissertation, was published in , In Speculum, Irigaray engages in close analyses of phallocentrism in Western philosophy and psychoanalytic theory, analyzing texts by Freud, Hegel, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and Kant.
In , Irigaray published This Sex Which is Not One Ce sexe qui n'en est pas un which was subsequently translated into English with that title and published in , along with Speculum. For example, Irigaray argues that the phallic economy places women alongside signs and currency, since all forms of exchange are conducted exclusively between men.
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She argues that our entire society is predicated on this exchange of women. Her exchange value is determined by society, while her use value is her natural qualities. This system creates three types of women: the mother, who is all use value; the virgin, who is all exchange value; and the prostitute, who embodies both use and exchange value. Within the same essay, "Women on the Market," Irigaray uses additional Marxist foundations to argue that women are in demand due to their perceived shortage and as a result, males seek "to have them all," or seek a surplus like the excess of commodity buying power, capital, that capitalists seek constantly.
Irigaray speculates thus that perhaps, "the way women are used matter less than their number. Some of Irigaray's books are imaginary dialogues with significant contributors to Western philosophy, such as Nietzsche and Heidegger. She continued to conduct empirical studies about language in a variety of settings, researching the differences between the way men and women speak. This focus on sexual difference is the key characteristic of Irigaray's oeuvre, since she is seeking to provide a site from which a feminine language can eventuate.