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They regained control of the city by August of This marked the fall of the Aztec empire. He had been appointed the governor, yet was removed from power after returning from a trip to Honduras in He returned to Mexico after his failing with the king and partook in several more expeditions throughout the New World. He died seven years later on December 2, at his home in Seville from a lung disease called pleurisy. He was a hero in the 16th century, but history remembers him differently.

He had many conquests during his life.

Hernan Cortes: The Conquistador of the Aztecs - Tooky History

But he is perhaps most known for his conquer of the Aztec Empire in He enslaved much of the native population, and many of the indigenous people were wiped out from European diseases such as smallpox. He was a smart, ambitious man who wanted to appropriate new land for the Spanish crown, convert native inhabitants to Catholicism, and plunder the lands for gold and riches.

However, we still recognize his role in history. He opened the door for further exploration and conquest of Central America to the south, and eventually led to the acquisition of California towards the north. Calvert, Patricia.

Cortés and Montezuma: the conquering of Tenochtitlan

New York: Benchmark Books, Donaldson-Forbes, Jeff. Fleming, Fergus. Off the Map: Tales of Endurance and Exploration. New York: Grove Press, Levy, Buddy. New York: Bantam Books, Owens, L. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Streissguth, Thomas.


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Mankato: Capstone Press, Levy, Conquistador, Moctezuma died in the evening hours of June 30, , in his palace in Tenochtitlan while being held as a prisoner of the Spanish. However, after the conquest, some of the information that Spanish friars collected from Indian stories, songs, and pictorial representations raised the possibility that Moctezuma died of strangulation or stabbing at the hands of the Spaniards.

There is even a suggestion of suicide. This issue remains unresolved and emotionally charged. I had taken him out, and then he reached a breastwork which ran out beyond the fortress, and was about to speak to them, [when] he received a blow on his head from a stone; and the injury was so severe that he died three days later…. Montezuma was placed by a battlement of the roof with many of us soldiers guarding him, and he began to speak to his people, with very affectionate expressions telling them to desist from the war, and we would leave Mexico.

They had hardly finished this speech when suddenly such a shower of stones and darts were discharged that our men who were shielding him having neglected for a moment their duty, because they saw how the attack ceased while he spoke to them he was hit by three stones, one on the head, another on the arm and another on the leg, and although they begged him to have the wounds dressed and to take food, and spoke kind words to him about it, he would not.

Indeed, when we least expected it, they came to say that he was dead. And so the Captain, well shielded with a steel buckler, and Cervantez the Commendador, covered by a leather shield, stayed in front of Moctezuma covering him well, so that he could not be wounded, and accompanied by certain hidalgos and soldiers, they climbed to the roof at the front of the courtyard where the house of the viceroy now stands. It happened that the people below, who were countless in number, were all strangers and did not know Moctezuma.

De suerte que le tiraron una pedrada con una honda y le dieron en la cabeza, de que vino a morir el desdichado rey. Translated by G. And saying this, before they could cover Motecuhzoma with the steel buckler and leather shield, one of them threw a stone hitting Motecuhzoma in the forehead, close to the crown of the head, which, even though wounding him, it was a glancing blow, making only a small wound….

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He collected extensive information from indigenous people about their ancestors and incorporated this material without resolving contradictory and competing points of view. It describes the head injury of Moctezuma, but diminishes its importance. There came toward him from among the flying stones one which was round as a ball, and hit him in the forehead as he stood there between the other two, and he fell… Aguilar, 1 Spanish source.

Moctezuma fell after being hit on the forehead. It is known that sometime after his injury, Moctezuma was conscious and able to converse, 4 , 28 acknowledging that he knew he was mortally wounded and would die soon. We read that Moctezuma was in pain. I told two of the Indians that were captive to carry him on the shoulders to the people. What they did with him I do not know; only the war did not stop because of it.

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In the quarters where he was lodged there were other great lords being held with him and with the approval of the captains Cortes had them killed, leaving not a single one. Later the bodies were removed and thrown in the porticos where the stores are now…. Can a head injury from a sling projectile be lethal? The answer is yes. The sling is one of the oldest weapons of war. Moreover, a small shot of this size is capable of a flat trajectory up to 75 yards.

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This raises the question of bias, as the Emperor was their prisoner at the time. Of major importance, and strong examples of the divergence of opinions, are the statements by Francisco de Aguilar, 1 one of the Spanish soldiers charged with protecting Moctezuma at the time of his injury. Like most clergy of the time, Aguilar favored the Indian cause. Even under these circumstances, Moctezuma was never without influence over his own people, nor did he cease to act in the best interests of his nation.

Instead of opening the markets, Cuitlahuac was directly appointed acting sovereign 21 , 23 and as such ordered the immediate annihilation of the Spanish contingent. When circumstances deteriorated for the Spaniards and they were facing death in the Aztec capital, Moctezuma agreed to intercede with his subjects on their behalf so that the Spaniards would have safe conduct, as they were ready to leave the city.

But we had to elect another to be our Lord, forgive us.